#ISCLondon – How Users USE Information
International SharePoint Conference – Developing an End User Adoption Strategy
Information Architecture starts with the User: I Love Users
Information Architecture: structural design of shared information
Do not (only) look at their current folder structure
folders are easy way to put information, but makes it difficult to find
“If I store it, thats how I use it, but how do others use it?”
Key Components in defining Information Architecure
- Content – what does exist?
- Context (business, organizational) – why does the content exist?
- Users – how does users use the content?
How to search?
Most people use the Google-Model
The users think:
“I ask a question, magic happens, and the system gives the answer”
But this doesn’t work because
– users don’t know what they search
– users don’t know how they search (querries, spelling)
– users don’t have patience
There are different ways how people search
- Users are looking for exactly one item e.g. a certain form – if the query is clear, search is usually good, since only a few results show up
- Users are looking for everything – users don’t know what they search, so they have no expectations of the results
- users kind of know what they want, but they are not really sure (exploratory) – usually queries are not good, because users don’t know how to get to the answer
- users try to find something again
SharePoint uses the Berry-Picking-Model
- View results
How to learn from users
TALK to USERS, not management
…but remember: users don’t know anything!
…but remember: Opinion Right
Just because it’s somebody’s opinion, doesn’t mean it’s right.
…So, Instead look for patterns in the answers.
How to test user adoption?
- Surveys – are not a good choice, only the people with strong feelings will fill it int, usually the ones that hate it
- Wireframing – Usefull because it does not interfere with design
- Card Sorting (http://boxesandarrows.com)
open: participants are given cards showing site content, no pre-established grouping
task: let them group
closed: participants are given cards showing site content, with an established initial set of primary groups
task: let them sort cards into groups
look for significance: the more people the higher the significance
Usability’s Quality Components
- Learnability – how easy can users accomplish basic tasks?
- Efficiency – how quickly can tasks be performed? (NOT number of clicks, but predictability, I know where to click)
- Memorability – after a period of non-use, how easy can a user re-establish proficiency?
- Errors – how many errors does the user/system make? how servere? can the user recover?
- Satisfaction – how pleasant is it to use the design?
- visibility of system status – do I know where I am?
- match between system and real world – does it match natural flow?
- user control and freedom
- Consistency and standards
- error prevention
- recognition rather than recall
- flexibility and efficiency of use
- aesthetic and minimalistic design
- help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors
- help and documentation
Performing a test
– before, during and after
– with at least 5 users, not stakeholders
– define list of common tasks (find this form, go to this place and upload a document)
– run the test (& don’t help!)
– analyze and report
What to do with results
– use as proof for nay-sayers
– provide best cost justifications
– identify simple issues that when fixed will greatly improve user acceptance